Fumarolic-like activity as the origin of CV and CO meteorite parent body metamorphism


Ganino C., Libourel G. (2020) Science Advances, 6, 27, eabb1166

Comparative planetology studies are key for understanding the main processes driving planetary formation and evolution. None have been yet applied to pristine asteroids formed in the solar protoplanetary disk, mainly because of their comminution during their 4.5- billion-year collisional lifetime. From remarkable textural, mineralogical,chemical, and thermodynamic similarities, we show that the hightemperature Kudryavy volcano fumarolic environment from Kurile Islands (Fig. 1) is a likely proxy of the Fe-alkali-halogen metasomatism on the CV and CO carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies (Fig. 2). Ca-Fe–rich and Na-Al-Cl–rich secondary silicates in CV and CO chondrites are, thus, inferred to be fumarolic-like incrustations that precipitate from hot and reduced hydrothermal vapors after interactions with the wallrocks during buoyancy-driven Darcy flow percolation. These vapors may originate from the progressive heating and devolatilization of a chondritic protolith on their parent body or are remnant of the cooling of residual local nebular gases at the time of their primary planetesimal accretion.


 fig1 A

Fig 1. I discovered the analogy between fumarolic incrustations of Kudryavy rocks (here the Kudryavy volcano from Iturup island in the Kurile volcanic arc) and secondary phases of carbonaceous chondrites that inspired this article.

fig2 A

Fig 2. BSE-SEM observation of hightemperature fumarolic incrustations from Kudryavy and secondary minerals in CV chondrites. Notice the striking similarity between the two settings.

Hypervelocity impacts as a source of deceiving surface signatures on iron-rich asteroids


Libourel G., Nakamura A.M., Beck P., Potin S., Ganino C., Jacomet S., Ogawa R., Hasegawa S., Michel P. (2019), Science Advances, 5, eaav3971.

fig1 BSeveral arguments point to a larger proportion of metal-rich asteroids than that derived from spectral observations, as remnants of collisional disruptions of differentiated bodies. We show using hypervelocity impact experiments, made at Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (JAXA), that this apparent deficit may result from the coating of metallic surfaces by silicate melts produced during impacts of hydrated or dry projectiles at typical asteroid impact speeds (≈km.s-1). Spectral analysis of steel and iron meteorite targets after impact shows a profoundly modified optical signature. Furthermore, hydrated projectiles leave a 3-μm absorption hydration feature. This feature is thus consistent with a metallic surface and does not require an unusual low-speed impact. Unless systematizing radar measurements, ground-based spectral observations can be deceptive in identifying iron-rich bodies. The NASA Psyche mission rendezvous with Psyche will offer the unique opportunity both to measure the relative abundances of regolith and glassy coated surfaces and to substantially increase our understanding of impact processes and signatures on a metal-rich asteroid.

fig2 B fig3 B


Fig 1 & 2 : a) Hypervelocity impact crater (6.9 km/s;1899J), b) X-ray map (Al, green; Fe, blue; Si, red) showing the coating over the entire surface of the bowl shape crater, and c) Normalized reflectance VISNIR spectra of the craters produced in this study compared to observation of probable metal-rich asteroid (including 16 Psyche) as well as metal-related spectral end-members.


Chondrules as direct thermochemical sensors of solar protoplanetary disk gas


Libourel G., Portail M. (2018). Science Advances 4, eaar3321.

Chondrules, millimeter-sized igneous spherules comprising the major component of most chondritic meteorites, formed during the first 4-5 million years of the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk and, therefore, can potentially offer important constraints on the conditions in the disk, provided that the processes that led to their formation can be understood. Highresolution cathodoluminescence survey of chondrules from ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite groups
revealed changes of CL activator concentrations of magnesium-rich olivines. We show that these overlooked internal zoning structures provide evidence for high-temperature gas-assisted near-equilibrium epitaxial growth of olivines during chondrule formation. We argue that this interaction with the surrounding gas, rather than various cooling histories, defined chondrule composition and texture. Chondrules are thus direct thermochemical sensors of their high-temperature gaseous environment, an high partial pressures of gaseous Mg and SiO are required in their solar protoplanetary disk-forming region to maintain olivine saturation in
chondrules. The inferred crystallization of olivines, from stable melts approaching equilibrium with the surrounding gas, provides an explanation for the notable absence of large and systematic isotopic fractionations in chondrules.

fig1 C

Fig 1. High-resolution CL images of the edge of type I chondrule from Yamato 81020 CO 3.05. Notice Mg-rich olivine core with outward asymmetric overgrowth and a continuous shell of the Mg-rich olivine at chondrule outer edge, formed by successive olivine overgrowth layers.


N.B. This paper inspires the present research proposal to prepare OSIRIS-REx return sample analyses

Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids


Delbo M., Libourel G., Wilkerson J., Murdoch N., Michel P., Ramesh K.T., Ganino C., Verati C., Marchi S., (2014). Nature, 508, 233-236.

Space missions and thermal infrared observations have shown that small asteroids (kilometre-sized or smaller) are covered by a layer of centimetresized or smaller particles, which constitute the regolith. Regolith generation has traditionally been attributed to the fall back of impact ejecta and by the break-up of boulders by micrometeoroid impact. Laboratory experiments and impact models, however, show that crater ejecta velocities are typically greater than several tens of centimetres per second,which corresponds to the gravitational escape velocity of kilometre-sized asteroids. Therefore, impact debris cannot be the main source of regolith on small asteroids. In this paper we report that thermal fatigue, a mechanism of rock weathering and fragmentation with no subsequent ejection, is the dominant process governing regolith generation on small asteroids. We find that thermal fragmentation induced by the diurnal temperature variations breaks up rocks larger than a few centimetres more quickly than do micrometeoroid impacts. Because thermal fragmentation is independent of asteroid size, this process can also contribute to regolith production on larger asteroids. Production of fresh regolith originating in thermal fatigue fragmentation may be an important process for the rejuvenation of the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids, and may explain the observed lack of low-perihelion, carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids.

fig1 D

Fig. 2. Schematic of the surface layer of rocks modelled in this paper. The rocks are subjected to spatial and temporal temperature gradients at the surface of the asteroid due to changes in the diurnal solar heating, which induce thermal fatigue crack growth.


Homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar system from the Mg isotopic composition of chondrules


Villeneuve J., Chaussidon M., Libourel G., (2009) Science, 325 (5943), 985-988

Models of the evolution of the early solar system rely on knowledge of the precise time scales for the physical and chemical processes that occurred in the early accretion disk and led to the formation of calcium- and aluminum- rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules, which are the building blocks of primitive meteorites (chondrites). The timing of the formation of the first solids in the solar system remains poorly constrained. Micrometerscale, high-precision magnesium
(Mg) isotopic analyses demonstrate that Earth, refractory inclusions, and chondrules from primitive meteorites formed from a reservoir
in which short-lived aluminum-26 (26Al) and Mg isotopes were homogeneously distributed at ±10%. This level of homogeneity validates the use of 26Al as a precise chronometer for early solar system events. Highprecision chondrule 26Al isochrons show that several distinct chondrule melting events took place from ~1.2 million years (My) to ~4 My after the first solids condensed from the solar nebula, with peaks between ~1.5 and ~3 My, and that chondrule precursors formed as early as 0.87 My after.

fig1 E

Fig. 1. Initial 26Al /27Al and its corresponding relative age (top axis) for Semarkona chondrules (bottom) and chondrules in other unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC) and carbonaceous chondrites (CC). The vertical solid lines represent peaks in the Semarkona distributions; dashed lines represent peaks in the UOC and CC distribution. Each peak might represent an up tick in chondrule production, or the peaks might reflect the efficiency of chondrules preservation.


Peer-reviewed papers

* for PhD and Post-doc under my supervision

Libourel G., Nagashima K., Portail M., Krot A. N., On the significance of oxygen-isotope variations in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta. (submitted)

Libourel G., Nagashima K., Portail M., Krot A. N., Oxygen isotope variations in Mg-rich olivines from type I chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta,  (2022)

Libourel G., Beck P., Barrat J.A., Non-terrestrial melts, magmas and glasses, in Magmas, melts, liquids and glasses: Experimental insights, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry; eds. D.R. Neuville, G. Henderson, D.B. Dingwell, Mineralogical Society of America. (in press)

Fu R., Volk M.W.R, Bilardello D., Libourel G., Lesur G., Ben Dor O. The fine-scale magnetic history of the Allende meteorite: Implications for the structure of the solar nebula. AGU Advances. . (2021)

Miyamoto H., …, Libourel G., …et al., Surface Environment of Phobos and Phobos Simulant UTPS. Earth, Planets and Space. 73, Article number: 214, DOI:10.21203/rs.3.rs-150345/v1. (2021)

Libourel G., Ganino C., Delbo M., Niezgoda M., Remy B., Aranda, L., Michel P. Network of thermal cracks in meteorites due to temperature variations: new experimental evidence and implications for asteroid surfaces. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 500 (2), 1905-1920 (2021)

Libourel G., Extraterrestrial glasses. In Encyclopedia of Glass Science, Technology, History, and Culture, 2 Volume Set. Pascal Richet editor. ISBN: 978-1-118-79949-9 (2021)

Ganino C., Libourel G. (2020) Fumarolic-like activity as the origin of CV and CO meteorite parent body metamorphism. Science Advances, 6, no. 27, eabb1166

Morbidelli A., Libourel G., Palme H., Jacobson S.A., Rubie D.C. (2020) Subsolar Al/Si and Mg/Si ratios of non-carbonaceous chondrites reveal planetesimal formation during early condensation in the protoplanetary disk. Earth and Planetary Science letters, 538.

Maurel C, Michel P, Owen JM, Binzel RP, Bruck-Syal M, Libourel G., (2020) Simulations of high-velocity impacts on metal in preparation for the Psyche mission. Icarus 338, 113505.

Lauretta D.S., Hergenrother C.W., … Libourel G., …et al. (2019) OSIRIS-REx discovery of particle ejection from asteroid (101955) Bennu. Science 366, eaay3544. DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3544.

Libourel G., Nakamura A.M., Beck P., Potin S., Ganino C., Jacomet S., Ogawa R., Hasegawa S., Michel P. (2019) Hypervelocity impacts as a source of deceiving surface signatures on iron-rich asteroids. Science Advances, 5, eaav3971.

Ganino, C., Libourel, G. & Bernard, A. (2019) Fumarolic incrustations at Kudryavy volcano (Kamtchatka) as a guideline for high- temperature (> 850° C) extinct hydrothermal systems. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 376, 75– 85.

Lauretta D.S., DellaGiustina, D.N., … Libourel G., …et al. (2019) The unexpected surface of asteroid (101955) Bennu”. Nature 568, 55-60.

DellaGiustina, D.N., Emery, J.P., … Libourel G., …et al. (2019) Properties of rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx imaging and thermal analysis. Nature Astronomy 3, 341-351.

Ganino C., Libourel G., Nakamura A. M., Michel P. (2019) Are hypervelocity impacts able to produce chondrule-like ejecta? Planetary and Space Science. 177, 104684.

Walsh K.J., Jawin E.R., … Libourel G., …et al., (2019) Craters, boulders and regolith of (101955) Bennu indicative of an old and dynamic surface. Nature Geoscience 12, 242-246.

Delpeyrat J.*, Pigeonneau F., Libourel. G, (2019) Chondrule radiative cooling in a non- uniform density environment. Icarus. 329, 1-7.

Libourel G., Portail M. (2018) Chondrules as direct thermochemical sensors of solar protoplanetary disk gas. Science Advances 4, eaar3321.

Wada K., et al. (2018) Asteroid Ryugu before the Hayabusa2 encounter. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science. 5, Article number: 82

Hezel D., Harak M., Libourel G. (2018) What we know about elemental bulk chondrule and matrix compositions: Presenting the ChondriteDB Database. Chemie der Erde – Geochemistry. 78, 1-14.

Ganino C., Libourel G., Nakamura A. M., S. Jacomet, O. Tottereau, and P. Michel, (2018) Impact?induced chemical fractionation as inferred from hypervelocity impact experiments with silicate projectiles and metallic targets. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences. 78, 1-14.

Jones R., Villeneuve J.*, Libourel G. (2018). Thermal Histories of Chondrules. In S. Russell, H. Connolly Jr., & A. Krot (Eds.), Chondrules: Records of Protoplanetary Disk Processes (Cambridge Planetary Science, pp. 57-90). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108284073.003

  Krot, A., Nagashima, K., Libourel, G., Miller, K. (2018). Multiple Mechanisms of Transient Heating Events in the Protoplanetary Disk. In S. Russell, H. Connolly Jr., & A. Krot (Eds.), Chondrules: Records of Protoplanetary Disk Processes (Cambridge Planetary Science, pp. 11-56). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108284073.002

Ebel, D., Alexander, C., Libourel, G. (2018). Vapor–Melt Exchange. In S. Russell, H. Connolly Jr., & A. Krot (Eds.), Chondrules: Records of Protoplanetary Disk Processes (Cambridge Planetary Science, pp. 151-174). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108284073.006

Ganino C., Libourel G. (2017) Reduced and unstratified crust in CV chondrite parent body. Nature communications 8: 261, Published online 2017 Aug 15. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00293-1

Libourel G., Michel P., Delbo M., Ganino C., Recio-Blanco A., De Laverny P., Zolensky M. E., Krot A.R., (2017) Primitive matter in the solar system. Icarus, 282, 375–379

Soulié C.*, Libourel G., Tissandier L.* (2017) Olivine dissolution in molten silicates: applications to chondrule formation. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 1-26.

Nagashima K., Krot A.N., Libourel G., Schrader D.L., (in press.) 16O-rich olivine abundances in FeO-rich chondrules and their rims from CR chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.

Marrocchi, Y., Chaussidon, M., Piani L.*, Libourel G. (2016) Early scattering of the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in meteoritic chondrules. Science advances, 2, 7, e1601001, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601001

Piani L.*, Marrocchi, Y., Libourel G., Tissandier L.* (2016) Magmatic sulfides in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 195, 84-99

Alí-Lagoa V., Delbo M., Libourel G. (2015) Rapid temperature changes and the early activity on comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 810:L22

Villeneuve J*, Libourel G., Soulié C.* (2015) Relations between type I and type II chondrules and their relevance on chondrule formation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 160, 277–305.

Delbo M., Libourel G., Wilkerson J., Murdoch N., Michel P., Ramesh K.T., Ganino C., Verati C., Marchi S., (2014). Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids. Nature, 508, 233.

Bouquain, S.*, Arndt, N.T., Faure, F., Libourel,G. (2014). An experimental study of pyroxene crystallization during rapid cooling in a thermal gradient: application to komatiites. Solid Earth. 5, 641-650

Libourel G., Corrigan C. (2014). Asteroïds: new targets, new challenges. Elements, Vol. 14, 1, 11-17.

Nagashima K., Krot A. N., Libourel G. (2014) Type I chondrules with ferroan igneous rims from Yamato 81020 CO3 and Acfer 094

ungrouped Type 3 carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics and Planetary Sciences, 49, A295- A295

Corrigan C., Libourel G. (2014). Asteroïds. Elements, Vol. 14, 1, 76p, ISSN 1811-5209

Marrocchi Y., Libourel G. (2013). Sulfur and sulfides in chondrules. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 119, 117–136.

Fuëri E., Aleon-Toppani A.*, Marty B., Libourel G., Zimmermann L. (2013). Effects of atmospheric entry heating on the noble gas and nitrogen content of micrometeorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 377-378, 1–12.

Morlok A.*, Libourel G. (2013). Aqueous alteration in CR chondrites: Meteorite parent body processes as analogue for long-term corrosion processes relevant for nuclear waste disposal. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 103, 76–103.

Faure F., Tissandier L.*, Libourel G., Mathieu R.*, Welsch B. (2012). Origin of glass inclusions hosted in magnesian porphyritic olivines chondrules: Deciphering planetesimal compositions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 319-320, 1–8.

Villeneuve J.*, Chaussidon M., Libourel G. (2012). Lack of relationship between 26Al ages of chondrules and their mineralogical and chemical compositions. Comptes Rendus. Géoscience, 344(9), 423–431.

Léger A., Grasset O., Fegley B., Codron F., … Libourel G., et al. (2011). The extreme physical properties of the CoRoT-7b super Earth. Icarus, 213, 1–11.

Libourel G., Verney-Carron A.*, Morlok A.*, Gin S., Sterpenich J.*, Michelin A., Neff D., Dillmann P. (2011). The use of natural and archeological analogues for understanding the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses. Comptes Rendus. Géoscience, 343(2-3), 237–245.

Mathieu R.*, Libourel G., Deloule E., Tissandier L*., Rapin C., Podor R. (2011). Na2O solubility in CaO-MgO-SiO2 melts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(2), 608–628.

Villeneuve J.*, Chaussidon M., Libourel, G. (2011). Magnesium isotopes constraints on the origin of Mgrich olivines from the Allende chondrite: Nebular versus planetary? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301, 107–116.

Libourel, G., Chaussidon, M. (2011). Oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of Mg-rich olivines from chondritic meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 301(1-2), 9–21.

Verney-Carron A.*, Gin S., Frugier P., Libourel G. (2010). Long-term modeling of alteration- transport coupling: Application to a fractured Roman glass. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 74(8), 2291–2315.

Valle N.*, Verney-Carron A.*, Sterpenich J.*, Libourel G., Deloule E., Jollivet, P. (2010). Elemental and isotopic (Si-29 and O-18) tracing of glass alteration mechanisms. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 74(12), 3412–3431.

Verney-Carron A.*, Gin S., Libourel, G. (2010). Archaeological analogs and the future of nuclear waste glass. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 406(3), 365–370.

Villeneuve J.*, Chaussidon M., Libourel, G. (2009). Homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar system from the Mg isotopic composition of chondrules. Science, 325(5943), 985–988.

Le Forestier L.*, Libourel G. (2008). High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid wast combustors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 373-380

Chaussidon M., Libourel G., Krot A.N. (2008). Oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of magnesian chondrules and on the gaseous reservoirs in the early Solar System. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 1924-1938

Verney-Carron A.*, Gin S., Libourel G. (2008). A fractured Roman glass block altered for 1800 years in seawater: Analogy with nuclear waste glass in a deep geological repository. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 5372-5385

Mathieu R.*, Khedim H., Libourel G., Podor R.,Tissandier L.*, Deloule L., Faure F., Rapin C., Villasi M. (2008) Control of alkali-metal oxide activity in molten silicates. Journal of Non Crystalline Solids, 354, 5079-5083.

Krot A. N., Yurimoto H., Hutcheon I. D., Libourel G., Chaussidon M., Tissandier L.*, Petaev M. I., MacPherson G. J., Paque- Heather J., Wark D. (2007). Type C Ca, Al-rich inclusions from Allende: Evidence for multistage formation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 71, 4342-4364

Libourel G., Krot A.N. (2007). Evidence for the presence of planetesimal material among the precursors of magnesian chondrules of nebular origin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. .254, 1-8

Cloquet C.*, Carignan J., Libourel G. (2006). Atmospheric pollutant dispersal around an urban area using trace metal concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in epiphytic lichens. Atmospheric Environment. 40, 574-

Faure F., Ardnt N., Libourel G. (2006). Formation of spinifex in dry komatiite by thermal gradient experiments. J. Petrol 47, 1591-1610.

Krot A. N., Libourel G., Chaussidon M. (2006). Oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules in CR chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 70, 767-779.

Toppani A.*, Libourel G., Robert F., Ghambaja J. (2006). Laboratory condensation of refractory dust in protosolar and circum stellar conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta.70, 5035-5060

Sterpenich J.*, Libourel G. (2006). Evidence of water diffusion in silicate glasses under natural weathering conditions given by buried medieval stained glasses. J. Non Cryst. Solid. 352, 5446-5451.

Cloquet C.*, Carignan J., Libourel G. (2006). Tracing source pollution in soils using cadmium isotope. Environmental Science & Technology. 40, 2525-2530

Krot A N., Yurimoto H., McKeegan K. D., Leshin L., Jones R. H., Chaussidon M., Libourel G., Yoshitake M., Huss G. R., Guan Y., Zanda B. (2006). Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules: invited review. Chemie der Erde. 66, 249-326

Libourel G., Krot A.N., Tissandier L. (2006). The role of gas-melt interaction during chondrule formation. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.251, 232-240

Carignan J., Libourel G., Cloquet C.*, Le Forestier L.* (2005). The Pb isotopic composition of fly ash and flue gas residues from municipal solid waste incinerators in France : implications for atmospheric Pb source tracing. Environmental Science & Technology. 39, 2018-2024

Krot A. N., Hutcheon I.D., Yurimoto H., Cuzzi. J. F., McKeegan K. D., Scott E. R. D., Libourel G.,

Chaussidon M., Aléon A.*, Petaaev M. I. (2005). Evolution of oxygen isotopic composition in the inner solar nebula. Astrophys. J., 622, 1333-1342.

Toppani A.*, Robert F., Libourel G., De Donato P., Barres O., Ghambaja J. (2005) – A dry condensation origin for circumstellar carbonates. Nature 437, 1121-1124.

Hewins, R. H., Connolly, H. C. Jr., Lofgren, G. E. & Libourel, G. (2005). Experimental constraints on chondrule formation. In Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, eds.

A. N. Krot, E. R. D. Scott, & B. Reipurth, (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series), 341, 286-317.

Krot A. N., Libourel G., Goodrich C., Petaev M. I. (2004). Silica-igneous rims around magnesian chondrules in CR carbonaceous chondrites : Evidence for fractional condensation during chondrule formation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 39, 1931-1955

Leroux H., Libourel G., Lemelle L., Guyot F. (2003). Dusty olivines in chondrites: evidence for formation by in-situ reduction. Meteoritics & Planetary Science.38, 81-94.

Libourel G., Marty B., Humbert F.* (2003). Nitrogen solubility in basaltic melt. Part I. Effect of oxygen fugacity. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 67, 4123-4135.

Toppani A.*, Libourel G. (2003). Factors controlling compositions of cosmic spinels. Applications to atmospheric entry conditions of meteoritic materials.. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 67, 4621-4638.

Tissandier L.*, Libourel G., Robert F. (2002). Gas-melt interactions and their bearing on chondrule formation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science.37, 1377-1389.

Humbert F.*, Libourel G., France-Lanord C., Zimmerman L., Marty B. (2001). CO2-laser extraction-static mass spectrometry analysis of ultra-low concentrations of nitrogen in silicates. Geostandards Newsletter, 24, 255-

Sterpenich J.*, Libourel G. (2001). Using stained glass windows to understand the durability of toxic waste matrices. Chemical Geology, 174, 181-193.

Lemelle L.*, Guyot F., Leroux H., Libourel G. (2001). An experimental study of the external reduction of olivine single crystals. American Mineralogist, 86, 47-54.

Toppani A.*, Libourel G, Engrand C. Maurette M. (2001). Experimental simulation of atmospheric entry of micrometeorites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science.36, 1377-1396.

Georges P.*, Libourel G, Deloule E. (2000). Experimental constraints on alkali condensation in chondrule formation. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 35, 1183-1188.

Libourel G. (1999). Systematics of calcium partitioning between olivines and silicate melts: implications for melt structure and calcium content of magmatic olivines. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 136, 63-80.

Le Forestier L.*, Libourel G. (1998). Characterization of flue gas residues from municipal solid waste combustors. Environmental Science & Technology. 32, 2250-2256

Soulard H.*, Boivin P., Libourel G. (1994). Liquid-forsterite-anorthite-spinel assemblage at 1 bar in the CMAS:implications for low pressure evolution of high-Al and high-Mg magmas. Eur. J. Min. 6, 633-646.

Toplis M.J.*, Libourel G., Caroll M.R.(1994). The role of phosphorus in crystallisation processes of basalt: an experimental study. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. Vol. 58, 797-810.

Libourel G., Deloule E., Toplis M.J*. (1994). Phosphorus partitioning in basalts: an experimental and ion probe study. Min. Mag., Vol 58A, 527-528.

Toplis M.J.*, Dingwell D.B., Libourel G. (1994). The effect of phosphorus on the iron redox ratio, viscosity and density of an evolved ferro- basalt. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 117, 293-304.

Chaussidon M., Libourel G. (1993). Boron partitioning in the upper mantle: an experimental and ion probe study. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. Vol 57, 5053-5062.

Libourel G., Geiger C., Merwin L, Sebald A. (1992) - 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy of glasses in the system CaSiO3-MgSiO3- Al2O3. Chemical Geology, 96, 387-397.

Shi P., Libourel G. (1991) - The effects of FeO on the system CMAS at low pressure and implications for basalt crystallization processes. Contrib. Mineralogy and Petrology, 108, 129-

Libourel G, Boivin P., Biggar G. M. (1989) - The univariant curve l=fo+an+di in the system C.M.A.S at one atmosphere: solid solutions and melt structures. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol . 102: 406-421.

Libourel G. (1988). Le complexe de Santa- Lucia di Mercurio (Corse): un nouveau jalon de la base de croûte varisque en Méditérranée Occidentale. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 307, II, 1067-1073.

Libourel G. (1988). Le complexe de Santa- Lucia di Mercurio (Corse): un équivalent possible des complexes de la Zone d'Ivrée:. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 307, II, 1225-1230.


  • Barbey P., Libourel G. (2003). Les relations de phases et leurs applications. Des Sciences de la Terre aux matériaux. Collection SGF, CPI, Editions scientifiques GB, Paris, 243p + CD- Rom, ISBN 2847030220.
  • Corrigan, C., Libourel, G., (2014) Asteroids. Elements, Vol. 14, 1, 76p, ISSN 1811-5209.
  • Geological maps and related: Rouire J., Rossi P., Bourges F., Libourel G., Dominici R. (1993) - Carte géologique de la France, PORTO-VECCHIO (Corse) 1/50 000. Editions du BRGM.
  • Rossi P., Durand-Delga M., Caron J. M., Guieu G,. Conchon O., Libourel G., Loyepilot M. D. (1994) - Carte géologique de la France, CORTE (Corse) 1/50 000. Editions du BRGM.
  • Lardeaux J.M., Menot R.P., Orsini J.B., Rossi P., Naud G., Libourel G. (1994) - Corsica and Sardinia in the variscan chain. In: "The Pre-Mesozoic terranes in France and related areas". J. D. Keppie, D. Santallier and A. Pigue ed., Springer-Verlag, 467-479.


Sterpenich J., Libourel G. (1997) - Les Vitraux médiévaux. Caractérisation physico-chimique de l’altération. TECHNE, La science au service de l’histoire de l’art et des civilisations. Revue semestrielle du Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France. n°6, 70-78.

Libourel G. (1997) - Verres et liquides silicatés. Exemples de recherches fondamentales et appliquées. Thèse d’habilitation à diriger des recherches. Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1.

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